Prayer Caps - Free Crochet Pattern


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This cap has an unusual construction because it was inspired by a macrame pattern in an old magazine.

Hazel Furst THREE WOMEN�S PRAYER CAPS

Here are designs for three lacy, feminine prayer caps to wear to synagogue. I designed these caps while I was planning for my youngest daughter�s Bat Mitzvah. It really helped to calm my nerves in the final weeks. Ironically, the head covering I actually wore to synagogue was something I did make but did not design.

MOCK MACRAME CROCHETED PRAYER CAP

 I had always loved the macrame pattern on which this cap was based, but never learned macrame. However, when I was poring through the magazine over 25 years later, I realized I now had the expertise to transform it into crochet. This pattern is quite a bit different than the original, but retains the same shape and lacy look.

Materials: 1 ball #10 crochet cotton, 24 size 4mm beads or pearls to match, thin sewing thread of any color, sewing needle that will go through the beads, size 6 steel crochet hook, scissors, tape measure. Gauge: 10 sc equal 1�

Level of difficulty: Intermediate

 Special stitches: Purl single crochet (psc)- yarn in front of hook, insert hook in lp from back to front, yo and draw up a lp through to the back, yo and through both lps on hook. Bead single crochet- insert hook in stitch, yarn over hook and draw up a loop, push a bead up behind the work, yarn over and complete single crochet with bead. Double Knot stitch- sc, (draw up ip to 3/8�, ch 1 through long lp, sc in space between long lp and single strand behind lp)2X. Picot- ch 3, sl St in 1st ch. Thread beads on the crochet thread before beginning. (To do this easily, first thead them on thin sewing thread. Tie the Sewing thread onto the #10 crochet cotton, and then push the beads over onto the heavier thread. Detach and discard sewing thread.

SECTION 1 ch 8, join to form ring. rnd 1- 12 sc in ring (WS). rnd 2- 2 sc in each sc (24 sc) spoke 1- row 1- working in front lps (this row only), sc in next 3 Sc, ch 1, turn. row 2- psc in each sc, ch 1, turn. row 3- sc in each sc, ch 1, turn. row 4- rep row 2. row 5- sc in 1st st, bead sc in next st, sc in last st, ch 1 1, turn. rows 6-7- rep rows 2 & 3 row 8- psc in each sc, end off. spokes 2-5- with WS still facing, skip 1 st on rnd 2, attach yarn in front lp of next st, rep rows 1-8 of spoke 1. spoke 6- follow directions for spokes 2-5, but do not end off after row 8.

SECTION 2 sc in next 3 st, *ch 11, sc in next 3 sts in next spoke, rep from * around, ch 11, join to 1st sc, ch 1, turn. rnd 1(RS)- in back lps (this rnd only), sc in each st (84 sc). rnds 2-3- sc around, inc 3 evenly spaced sc around (to inc, 2 sc in sc). Join to 1st sc at the end of rnd 3 (87, 90 sc). rnd 4- sl st into next 3 ch, ch 1, double knot St in same st, *sk next 4 sc of rnd 3, double knot st in next sc, rep from * around, join to sc at beg of rnd, end off, turn (18 double knot sts). spokes (make 18)- row 1- with WS facing, 3 sc in center sc of any knot st, ch 1, turn. rows 2-8- follow directions for spokes in section 1. Do not end off on spoke 18.

SECTION 3 sc in each st, *ch 7, 3 sc in next spoke, rep from * around, end with 7 Sc, join to 1st sc of rnd, ch 1, turn (180 sts). rnd 1 (RS)- working in back lps for this row only, sc in each st around. rnds 2-3- sci in each st, but inc 2 evenly spaces sts each rnd. For rnd 3, do not inc over inc in previous rnd. Do not turn. (182, 184 sc) rnd 4- ch 5 (counts as dc, ch 2), sk next sc, sc in next sc, ch 2, sk next sc, dc in next sc, ch 3. sk next 3 Sc, *dc in next sc, ch 2 sk next sc, sc in next sc, ch 2, sk next sc, dc in next sc, ch 3 sk next 3 sc, rep from * around, ending with ch 3, join to 3rd ch of starting ch 5. rnd 5- ch 6 (counts as dc, ch 3), dc in next dc, *ch 2, sc in next ch 3 lp of prey rnd, ch 2, dc in next dc, ch 3, dc in next dc, rep from * around, ending with ch 2, sc in last ch 3 lp of prev rnd, ch 2, join to 3rd ch of ch 6 at beg of rnd. rnd 6- ch 5, sc in next ch 3 lp of prey rnd, ch 2, *dc in next dc, ch 3, dc in next dc, ch 2 sc in next ch 3 lp of prev rnd, ch 2, rep from * around, ending with joinin to 3rd ch of starting ch 5 lp. rnd 7- rep rnd 5. rnd 8- ch 1, sk joining, sc in back lp of next 3 ch and next dc, *ch 3, sc in back lps of next dc, next 3 ch, and next dc, rep from * around, ending ch 3. (183 sts) rnd 9- sc in next 4 sc, *sc in back lp of next 3 ch, sc in next 5 sc, rep from * around, ending with sc in back lps of last 3 ch. rnd 10-11- sc in each sc around. rnd 12- *picot sl st in next 3 sts, rep from * around, join. To complete, weave in all ends.

Approximate total stitches: 3842

IRISH CROCHET PRAYER CAP �Aaron Go Brag�

Made of 7 rose motifs and 6 leaf motifs that are crocheted together this 1 3-motif cap would be perfect for a Bar or Bat Mitzvah. The outer rim has 18 loops. Whenever I can, I like to design using spiritually significant numbers. I got the idea for this cap, which was designed specifically for this book, from the shape of another head covering I had adapted from a beaded doily made with a center of seven (one surrounded by six) hexagonal motifs. All I had needed to do was to pull in the spaces between the outer motifs to make a curved cap shape instead of a flat surface. I decided to adapt the idea to Irish Crochet, using traditional rose and leaf motifs, and picot netting, but note that the spaces around the center motif form a Jewish star. This pretty three dimensional design looks beautiful in white or cream. To make the model extra special, I worked it up in DMC Cordonnet Special, a tightly woven shiny #10 cotton.

Materials: 1 ball #10 crochet cotton, size 6 steel crochet hook, scissors, tape measure. Gauge: Diameter of rose (after round 4, from center of any petal to center of petal across from it) equals 1 1//2"

Level of difficulty: Intermediate.

LEAF Make 6 and set aside. The odd numbered rows are the right side of the work. row 1- ch 7, sc in 4th ch from hook, sc in last 3 ch, ch 3 going around other side of starting ch, sc in next 3 ch, ch 3, turn. row 2 (work entire row in front lp of each st)- sc in next 3 sc, sc in next ch, ch 3, sk I ch, sc in next ch, sc in next 3 ch, ch 3, turn. row 3 (work entire row in back lp of each st)- sc in next 4 sc, sc in next ch, ch 3 sk 1 ch, sc in next ch, sc in next 3 sc, ch 3, turn. row 4 (work entire row in front lp of each st)- sc in next 4 sc, sc in next ch, ch 3, sk next ch, sc in next ch, sc in next 3 sc, ch 3, turn. row 5-repeat row 3. row 6- repeat row 4. row 7 (work entire row in back lp of each st)- sc in next 4 sc, sc in next ch, sl St in next ch, end off.

FIRST (CENTER) ROSE MOTIF ch 6, join to form ring. rnd 1- ch 5 [counts as dc, ch 3], (dc in ring, ch 3)5X, join to 2nd ch of starting ch 5. rnd 2- ch 1, sc in joining, *in next lp make 1 sc, 1 hdc, 5 dc, 1 hdc, 1 sc for petal, sc in next dc; repeat from * around, ending with 6th petal. rnd 3- (sc in next sc, ch 5)6X rnd 4- repeat md 2 except for starting ch 1. rnd 5- sl st into next hdc, ch 1, sc in same hdc, *picot lp [picot lp = ch 3, sc in 3rd ch fm hook for picot, ch 3], (sk next 2 dc, sc in next st, picot lp)2X, sc in next hdc, repeat from * around, ending with last lp as ch 3, sc in 3rd ch fm hook, dc in ~1st sc of rnd. (18 lps) rnd 6- sc in lp, *picot lp, sc in next lp on far side of picot of prev rnd; rep from * around, ending with last lp as ch 3, sch in 3rd ch fm hook, dc in 1st sc of rnd. rnd 7- sc in lp, * large picot lp [large picot lp = ch 4, sc in 3rd ch fm hook for picot, ch 3], sc in next lp on far side of picot of prev rnd, rep fm * around, ending with large picot lp, join to 1st sc of rnd, end off.

SECOND ROSE MOTIF Work 1st motif through rnd 6. On rnd 7, always sc in a picot lp on the far side of the picot of the prev rnd, as before. rnd 7- ch 1, sc in lp. Hold st motif behind 2nd motif with wrong sides facing. Ch 2, sc into any picot of motif 1, ch 3, sc ifl next lp of motif 2, (ch 2, sc into next picot of motif 1, ch 3, sc in next lp of motif 2)2X, (large picot lp, sc in next lp)2X. Take a completed rose leaf and hold it behind 2nd motif with wrong sides facing and the tip of leaf pointing up. Ch 2, sc into bottom ch of leaf, ch 3, sc in next lp of rose motif, (ch 2, sc into next side picot of leaf, ch 3, sc in next lp of rose motif)3X, (lrg picot lp, sc in next lp)3X. Hold a second completed leaf behind work with wrong sides facing and leaf tip pointing up. Ch 2, sc in top side picot of leaf, ch 3, sc in next lp of rose motif Join leaf to motif over next 3 lps as before and complete motif with lrg picot l ps. End off

THIRD-SIXTH MOTIFS Work 1st motif through rnd 6. On rnd 7, always sc in a picot lp on the far side of the picot of the prev rnd, as before. rnd 7- Position center motif behind new motif with wrong sides facing. Ch 2, sc into picot of 3rd lp from joining of center motif (to last motif worked), ch 3, sc in next lp of current motif, (ch 2, sc into picot of next lp on center motif, ch 3, sc in next lp of current motif)2X, (ch 2, sc in next picot of outer motif next to it, ch 3, sc in next lp of current motif)2X, ch 2, insert hook in bottom ch of rose leaf, yo and draw up a lp, insert hook in picot attached to bottom of rose leaf and draw up a 2nd lp, yo hook and through all 3 lps for a sc join st. Ch 3, sc in next lp of current motif, (ch 2, sc in next side picot of leaf, ch 3, sc in next lp of current motif)3X, (large picot lp, sc in next st)3X, ## join a new leaf to next 4 lps as before, large picot lp, sc in next lp, large picot lp, join to 1st sc of round, end off.

SEVENTH MOTIF Follow instructions for 3rd-6th motifs through ## on round 7, then continue same instructions joining to leaf at the side of 2nd motif, complete motif and end off. FINISHING rnd 1- Join with ch to any leaf tip, sc in same leaf tip, *ch 10, sc in picot of next lp, ch 10, sk next picot lp, sc in picot of following picot lp, ch 10 sc in next leaf tip, rep from * around, ending with ch 10, join to sc in 1� leaf tip. (18 loops) rnd 2- ch 1,* in next lp sc, hdc, dc, 7 tr, dc, hdc, sc; rep from * around, join to 1st sc of rnd, end off. Weave in all ends.

Approximate total stitches: 2842

BASKETWEAVE STAR PRAYER CAP

 This is a �might midget �, at only about 958 stitches, and it works up very quickly because almost half of the stitches are chains or slip stitch joins. This pattern has great potential as a fundraising item for sisterhood gift shops. I give precise yardages for this cap so you can do a cost analysis if your sisterhood is considering this as a project. You can sell it and generate interest that will probably die out pretty quickly, or (with enough crocheters) you can market it and have continuing demand. Do this by matching the DMC colors to the yarmulkas you sell for Bar and Bat Mitzvahs, and show samples of completed caps trimmed in the yarmulka colors when you show the yarmulka samples. Even if one out of every 5 people give you a corresponding cap order, you�ll do well. You can also make this up in fashion colors for your temple, or make it for yourself to match a favorite outfit. Just remember that it sits on hair, so a black and white color combination may look really sharp, but won�t show up completely on most women�s heads. If I am the mother of this project, Annie Potter of Annie�s Attic in Texas has got to be the grandmother. She has had many patterns featuring the simple beauty of single crochet worked through the back loop, and she pioneered the idea of interlocking crocheted rings.. From there, it was just a short stretch to wrapping the yarn around three times to make a star of interlocking triangles. In earlier versions of this pattern, I had 2 closed triangles, but doing the second one was a nightmare! I came up with the idea of having an open triangle, and to have the joins on each triangle at a point where it would be hidden in the weave.

Materials: 20 1/2 yds Speed-Cro-Sheen or Luster Sheen (A), 15 � yds (1 skein) of contrasting color DMC #3 perle cotton or corresponding metallic thread(B), and a 1 yard of same color as B in DMC #8 perle cotton or embroidery floss (use 3 strands). Steel crochet hooks sizes 00 and 6. Tapestry needle. Scissors. Tape measure.

Note: Recommended metallic yarns- Found in fine knitting supply stores-No Smoking by Filatura di Crosa is a mulifilament metallic yarn that comes in beautiful colors and is very effective for B. For C, take a yard of this yarn and divide the filaments in half, and you will have enough C for 2 caps. Alexa by Vendome is thin, but works very well doubled for B and with a single strand for C. Gauge: With larger hook- 20 sts equal 3�. Exact gauge is not critical in this pattern, since the cap sits on top of the head and can be a little bigger or smaller than pictured.

Level of difficulty: Beginner to intermediate

Closed triangle: Work in back lp of each st except as directed. With A and larger hook ch 39 and join with sl st to form a ring. rnd 1: Ch 1, sc in joining ch, sc in each of next 3 ch, 5 sc in next ch, (sc in next 12 ch, 5 sc in next ch)2X, sc in last 8 ch, join with sl st through both lps, do not turn. rnd 2: Ch 1, sc in joining sc, sc in next 5 sc, (5 sc in next sc, sc in next 16 sc)2X, 5 sc in next sc, sc in last 10 Sc, join with sl st through both lps, end off rnd 3: Join B with ch 1 in back lp of joining sc, sc in next 7 sts, (5 sc in next sc, sC in next 20 sc)2X, 5 sc in next sc, sc in last 12 sc, join with sl St through both lps, end off. Weave in all ends. Open triangle: Work in back ips for all rows. With A and larger hook, ch 40, starting off with 6� of unworked thread. row 1: sc in 2nd ch from hook, sc in next 3 chs, (5 Sc in next ch, sc in next 12 chs)2X, 5 sc in next ch, sc in last 8 chs, end off. DO NOT TURN. row 2: Join A with ch 1 in 1st sc, sc in same st, sc in next 5 sc, (5 sc in next sc, sc in next 16 sc)2X, 5 sc in next sc, sc in last 10 sc, end off. DO NOT TURN. row 3: With B, join with ch 1 to 1st sc of last row, starting off with 2� of unworked thread. Sc in same st, sc in next 7 sc, (5 sc in next sc, sc in next 20 sc)2X, 5 sc in next sc, sc in last 12 sc, cut thread 2� from last st worked. Assemble star: Weave broken triangle under and over solid triangle to form a star, starting by hiding the joining under the solid triangle. Thread tapestry needle with 6� starting thread of broken triangle and sew rows 1 and 2 together. Tie Starting and ending threads of B together. Weave in all ends.

Completing head covering: With A, join with ch 1 in back lp of 4th sc before center sc of any point on the star. rnd 1: Working in back lps all around, sc in same st as joining, ch 8, *sc in 4th sc after center sc of same point, ch 8, sc in 4th sc before center sc of next point, repeat from * around until there are 11 ch 8 lps, then sc in 4th sc after center of same point just worked and end with ch 4, tr in both lps of 1st sc of rnd. rnd 2: Sc in lp, (ch 10, sc in next lp)llX, ch 5, dtr in both lps of 1st sc of rnd. rnd 3: Sc in lp, (cli 8, sc in next lp) 1lX, ch 8, join to 1st sc of rnd, end off. rnd 4: With B, join with ch 1 in any lp. In same lp, sc, hdc, 6 dc, hdc, sc, (in next lp, sc, hdc, 6 dc, hdc, sc) 11X, join to 1st sc of rnd, end off, weave in all ends.

Center mini-star: Use C and smaller hook (if using embroidery floss, use 3 strands) and work in the center hexagon made by the two triangles. With the right side facing, insert hook in Center lp of one side of the hexagon (this is the unworked lp of the starting ch) and join with ch 5 (counts as dc and ch 2). Dc in same lp. (In next side of hexagon, dc in center lp, ch 2, dc in same lp)5X. Join to 3rd ch of starting ch 5 to complete the mini-star. Weave in ends.

Approximate total stitches: 958

ABBREVIATIONS beg beginning ch, chs chain, chains dc double crochet dtr double treble crochet (yarn over hook 3X) hdc half double crochet inc increase lp,lps loop, loops lrg large mm millimeter prey previous psc purl single crochet (see directions at beginning of pattern) rep repeat rnd round rs right side sc single crochet sk skip sl st slip stitch sp space st, sts stitch, stitches tr treble crochet (yarn over hook 2X) ws wrong side yo yarn over SYMBOLS ( )#X Repeat instructions within parentheses the number of times indicated. [ ] Explanation of previous direction,not additional directions. * Return to this point and repeat directions after this symbol ## Placemarker in directions; referred to later.

 WASHING INSTRUCTIONS

All three caps may be hand washed in cool water with mild soap. Liquid dishwashing detergent works very well.

This is the bread of our freedom.

This is an intermediate to advanced project, designed and made by Elena Keen

This is a matzah holder intended for everyday use, instead of a bread basket. It is simple to make, easily disassembled for laundering and storing and it�s compact. Made of washable cotton, stiffened with removable plastic canvas or cotton batting, it is still a representation of the month of Aviv, which is Spring. Because this is a celebration, I chose flowers and leaves for this project, to indicate renewed life. The theme of freedom. from slavery to personal freedom, from Egypt to Israel, runs deep in our psyche and in our prayers. During the year I was saying Kaddish for my dear departed mother, this was brought to me again and again during the daily services. I realized that it was also the story of how we, who started as a single family of nomads became a nation. Freedom is also the underlying story of my life. As a �hidden child� who was lucky enough to survive the Holocaust with her nuclear family intact, the fight for freedom from hate has been a major theme of who I am, what I do. So when I was asked to participate in this hook, it was naturally that I turned to the theme of Pesach. I already had an idea for a �matzah basket and so I decided to develop it further, making it accessible to most people. I was born in 1940 in Brasov, Rumania. Following the war, my family emigrated to Montevideo, Uruguay, where we had family members who sponsored us. In 1964, I again emigrated, this time to Canada, where my newly married sister had moved. I met my future husband in Toronto, shortly after the death of my dear father and married him a year later. We have lived in Ottawa, the Canadian capital, since 1973. We have two sons, the older one living in Tel Aviv, Israel and the younger one living in Toronto.

Supplies �1 yd. unbleached muslin (44/45� wide) or oatmeal coloured or ecru linen or linen/cotton or cotton/ramie blends, or white-on white cotton. I yd. cotton batting �scraps of green fabric (for leaves) and pink, purple or red fabrics (for flowers) �1- l/3 yd. 1/8� wide ribbon, in colour matching the base fabric --shears for cutting fabric (or if you already have a rotary mat and cutter, this would do nicely). You�ll also need paper scissors and embroidery scissors. �measuring tape, or large plastic ruler, such as an Omnigrid� ruler (for rotary cutting) -pins, needles (for embroidery and/or machine sewing) �sewing machine in good working order (with straight and zigzag stitch), and with a foot for straight stitching and one for embroidery or an open-toed foot. --sewing machine and sewing machine embroidery needles. �1 box of matzah, unopened, to use as a pattern template. �1 washable fine line fabric marker or fabric pencil. �cotton thread for machine (matching the colour of your fabric), machine rayon embroidery threads (for machine appliqu�ing) in colours approximately matching your green and floral fabrics and in your background fabric colour (1 spool cotton embroidery thread; Mettler makes both a 40 and a 60 weight cotton machine embroidery thread), cotton embroidery floss, (DMC or Anchor 6-stranded floss -- light yellow and ochre). -light-weight paper-backed fusible web. You will need a 1 foot square piece, maximum, but buy the least amount you can purchase. A 6� long strip should do ( paper-backed fusible web comes in 22� widths.) Directions.

-a) To open the matzah box and create your template use a sharp knife and slit both short sides and one long side seam around the top of the box. Open the flap and mark the plain side FRONT.

Remove the matzahs and nibble on them as you work. Slit the side seams on the front of the box, mark the plain side TOP.

Slit the short seams on each side and mark both flaps SIDE.

What used to be the bottom of the matzah box should be marked BACK and what used to be the back of the matzah box should be marked BOTTOM.

This is your pattern template. It should be a single cross shaped piece of cardboard that looks like the picture in the Gallery.

-b)Pin together the muslin, batting and backing fabrics,place template on the fabric sandwich, trace around the entire template. Trace a 1/2" seam allowance around the entire template tracing. Cut out the traced pattern. Unpin the three layers.

-c)Baste together the top fabric and the batting and treat as one piece.

-d)For top (circular pattern ) on paper-backed fusible web, draw 16 leaves and 16 flowers( 8 flowers and 8 flowers reversed, see drawing); for sides of box (rectangular pattern): on paper-backed fusible web draw 22 leaves and 25 flowers, and 2 small leaves (see drawing). Draw all leaves together, then all flowers., you want them grouped in the most efficient manner possible. Cut the �leaves� portion of the fusible web and iron onto the wrong side of the green fabric. Iron �flowers� part onto the fabric you chose for the floral portion. Cut out leaves and put them in a safe place (i.e. an envelope), then do the same for the flowers.

-e) For the stems of the designs, do a satin stitch or a top-stitching stitch on lid and sides, where indicated. Do the letters in satin stitch, or in top-stitching stitch.

-f) Place leaves and flowers as per design and bond according to instructions on paper-backed fusible web. Satin stitch along the edge of leaves with green rayon thread and alone the edge of the flowers with a matching rayon thread, catching both background fabric and appliqu�d piece. Taper the satin stitch on and off at corners.

 -g)Hand embroider a stem stitch for the stamens of the flowers, with a single strand of light yellow floss, and make a French knot at the end of� each stamen with a double strand of ochre floss A candlewicking knot may he used instead of the French knot, or even take several small stitches to form a small filled circle.

-h)Once embroideries are all complete, place face down over a fluffy towel and press.

-i) Place embroidered. piece and its lining right side to right side, sew with a scant 1/4� seam allowance, leaving an opening for turning. Cut excess fabric at corners (grade), to allow for sharp points and turn. Press.

 -j)Run two straight stitched seams, 1/4� apart at each of the crease lines of the box.

-k)Assemble the matzah box: Make 3 or four loops on each edge of the flaps of the box where the corners meet, by stitching across a piece of the ribbon, laid along the short edge, at the top, bottom and once or twice in between(a total of 8 sets) using the narrow ribbon.

Tie 1/3 yd of the narrow ribbon to one of the bottom loops, and lace together with the facing loops, like lacing a shoe. This will close up the box corners. Your matzah box is complete.

The whole box can be easily disassembled for laundering, by unlacing the sides. If you are ever unsure, refer to the Gallery picture.

References. Any good basic embroidery book, such as Reader�s Digest Book of Needlework, will have the basic stitches used in this project. These stitches are all standard.

To launder, open lacing on corners of box. Wash by hand or on gentle cycle. Dry flat. Press with embroideries face down onto a soft towel.

 

 

 

Title: A Yellow Star of David

Artist: Ayelet Lindenstrauss Larsen

The yellow Star of David which Jews had to wear under the Nazis was intended to represent a whole people-- a multitude of individuals. So I made it out of a fabric embroidered with people. The dark lines forming and surrounding the Star of David are superimposed on these people, obscuring many of them. It is hard to comprehend a catastrophe with six million victims. One can attempt to understand its effect on particular people, then mentally multiply the scale. But there is a risk of being so overwhelmed by the numbers that one cannot constantly remember that they count individual people, each with their own thoughts and feelings, who perished. �A Yellow Star of David� was made to emphasize this fact, obvious yet truly difficult to grasp. The Holocaust was not one calamity but more than six million calamities. You cannot think of a whole people as one symbol, a star of plain yellow fabric; you cannot think of the death of its members abstractly. The black lines forming the Star of David, and those surrounding it with darkness, were made with a marker after the embroidery of the people in yellow was completed. Looking at the embroidered image, the placement of the lines seems arbitrary, with some people becoming completely obliterated by them, others half-hidden, yet others miraculously spared. I made this piece small, on a scale with the original yellow stars the Jews had to wear. But it would work well on a larger scale�� even a much larger scale, say a wall hanging on 14 mesh canvas, worked as a group project where each group member embroiders one or more people. Whatever the size of the canvas, the piece should be large enough to portray many people, each different, standing together- at least a hundred, say. This number is still of a totally different order of magnitude than the number of victims, but large enough for the image to be perceived simultaneously as a crowd of people and as a collection of individuals.

Skill Level: Advanced

Basic Reference on Canvas Embroidery, if Needed: The Needlepoint Book, Jo Ippolito Christensen, Fireside Books 1999

Materials List: (The list assumes you will be working on the same scale I did- if you plan to work larger, the sizes of the gauze, muslin, paper, cardboard, and needles, and also the fiber quantities (if a much bigger scale is planned), should be adjusted appropriately) - Ruler � Compass (which can draw a circle as big as you want the project to be. If you want a really large version, a �compass� can be made by tying sewing thread to a long pin and to a pencil) � Pencil - 1-2 sheets of paper (e.g. from a notebook or pad) - Tape � Rectangular piece of cardboard at least 8� long on each side � Iron and ironing board - Scissors: for cutting fabric and for cutting embroidery thread - Square of 42 mesh silk gauze, 8� by 8� � Square of muslin or any other inexpensive woven fabric, 18� by 18� � Sewing needle (or sewing machine) and sewing thread � Tapestry needles, size #26 or #28: at least 6 so you can keep a few thread colors ready to use - Sharp-pointed embroidery needles (e.g. #9 crewel needles) : at least 2 � Embroidery hoop of radius 12� or more (or other sort of frame) ��The Marvy Fabric Marker�� #622 in black. � Embroidery thread: You will need small amounts of many colors. Scraps are great. I used stranded embroidery floss, #8 pearl cotton, and flower thread. Using threads from different manufacturers gives you a greater variety of yellows, beiges, browns, and skintones. But if you do not have a lot of scraps, buying a skein of DMC stranded floss in each of the following colors will give you a sufficient range: Women�s dresses� yellows #307, #444. #445, #725, #726, #727, #743, #744, #745, #973, #3078, #3822. Men�s shirts� white, ecru, and beiges #543, #712, #739, #3047. Men�s pants� light tans #437, #612, #613, #738, #834, #3821, #3822. Faces, arms, and legs� skin tones #945, #950, #951, #3773, #3774, #3779. Hair� browns #420, #433, #434, #801, #838, #839, #869; coppers #301, #780, #781, #782; light tan #422; light grays #318, #415, #648. Shoes- browns used for hair, and also dull grays #414, #611, #642. Eyes� browns used for hair, grays used for shoes, and also greens #581, #3052; blues #334, #931. Again, none of these particular shades are essential; the most important ranges to have a lot of colors in are the yellows, and to a lesser extent the beiges, the light tans, and the skin tones. Different dye lots of the same color sometimes look quite different, and floss and pearl cotton of the same brand and same color number do look quite different because of the different way they reflect light. I used cotton almost exclusively; if you plan to use other fibers, stitch a small sample and try marking over it with the marker you intend to use� wool in particular seems a little too springy to accept the color of the marker I used.

Instructions: 1. Use the compass to draw a circle of diameter of about 5 1/2� (so radius of about 2 3/4�) on the paper; if you plan to baste in step 4 below, don�t change the radius of the compass and draw an identical circle on your second sheet. In any case, don�t change the radius of the compass before step 2.

2. Take one of the sheets of paper you made in step 1, and draw a perfectly balanced Star of David inscribed in the circle you have on it. The key to making a perfectly balanced Star of David is the six petalled daisy children draw when they first get compasses� place your compass point on the edge of a circle (where the compass is still set to the radius you used to make the circle) , and draw the arc of the circle around it which lies inside the original circle. This will mark out two new points at the edge of the circle. Repeat the procedure for them, and you will get two new points. Repeat the procedure for them, and you will get one new point, diametrically opposite the one you started from. Repeat the procedure for it, and you will get the six-petalled daisy. The Star of David is formed by connecting the points at the end of the daisy�s petals, in two sets of threes. If the daisy turns out perfect, your measuring is completely accurate; if it�s nearly perfect, the Star of David should still look balanced; if the daisy looks very messy, with arcs overlapping where they shouldn�t and points failing to meet by nontrivial distances, it would be better to try again. Save the sheet of paper with the Star of David for step 7.

3. Sew the gauze into the center of the muslin� iron both, center the gauze on the muslin, making sure that both layers are flat, and then sew all around the gauze, about 1/4� from its edge. Then cut out the muslin from behind the gauze, about 1/8� from your%2